Pym then invites comparison between Jakobson's work and that of Umberto Eco, who describes forms for the interpretant:
- An equivalent sign in another semiotic system (a drawing of a dog corresponds to the word 'dog').
- An index directed to a single object (smoke signifies the existence of a fire).
- A definition in the same system ('salt' signifies 'sodium chloride').
- An emotive association which acquires the value of an established connotation ('dog' signifies 'fidelity').
- A 'translation into another language', or substitution by a synonym.
We can see many of these acts of interpretation around us in everyday speech an life exchanges.